How large telescope matrices work: detailed introduction

2022-05-30 0 By

Astronomy | | | telescope asteroid desert astronomical stylobate peak observatory, astronomers are trying to introduce a kind of adaptive optics alternative – the PPP matrix astronomical telescope.Kitt Peak National Astronomical Observatory kitt Peak Observatory is located at Kitt Peak in the Quinlan Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Sono Odum, Arizona, 88 kilometers (55 miles) west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona.With more than two dozen optical telescopes and two radio telescopes, it is one of the largest collections of astronomical instruments in the northern hemisphere.In the context of the fabled Myer telescope and the world’s largest spectrometer working at Kitt Peak observatory, WIYN is not so grand and could be lost.However, the latest technology it uses places it alongside the most magnificent astronomical tools on earth.There aren’t many places on the planet where geography and climate conditions are best suited for observing astronomers.This is the dry Atacama desert in Chile, home to four 8.2 meter tall VLT observatory giants and a series of ALMA millimeter telescopes.This is Mount Mauna Kea in Hawaii, where there are more telescopes than any other peak on Earth, and the South Pole Highlands have the 10-meter Long South Pole Telescope.The Sonoran Desert on the U.S.-Mexico border is in the same line, as is kitt Peak National Observatory.WIYN telescope array partially filled with OTCCD matrix.It was in this configuration (nine matrices in the center, four at the edge) that the telescope worked in its first two years.Today, that number has increased to 30.Sonora is one of the largest, driest, and hottest deserts in North America, covering several states.It is inhabited by the Papaya Indians, the tohono-Odum, the Desert people, who are closely related to the Pima.Kitt Peak (loligam in the local language) is still sacred, but not as far away as Bhabukvivari.So unlike the Native Hawaiians, who recently blocked mauna Kea from building a new 30-meter telescope, the Indians leased the Kitt Peak land more than half a century ago for a quarter of a dollar an acre.New treaties signed in the early 2000s put these conditions into effect, making it possible to modernize the telescope.The observatory’s staff could safely plan their work for decades to come without worrying about problems with Native Americans.The lack of nearby cities reduces light pollution in the sky, the altitude of 2,000 m reduces the atmospheric thickness above the observatory, and the arid climate provides approximately 260 “clean” cloudless nights per year (72%).On kitt Peak’s slopes today, the caps of 26 telescopes are held tightly like mushrooms on bark.The mountain is open to tourists, and anyone, not necessarily an astronomer, can bypass the area.The main thing is not to make noise, which recalls the loving inscription: “Please be quiet: Astronomers sleep during the day.Effects of different atmospheres on stellar images PPS have been almost replaced in ordinary photographs by substrates based on metal-oxide semiconductor complementary structure techniques.The technology allows the crystal and matrix of photosensitive detectors and digital electronics to be integrated into a crystal and matrix to process signals received from it.In the CMOP matrix, signals are output simultaneously from multiple pixels in parallel.This is especially helpful in avoiding waiting for exhibitions to close and getting data in real time.However, for professional astronomy, it is still more convenient and profitable to use the older PSU in some cases, mainly because the noise at high sensitivity levels is very low.Antenna and rearview mirror The Mayr Ring Telescope, named after Nicholas Meola, director of observatory 2, is kitt Peak’s largest optical telescope and one of the 20 largest optical telescopes in the world.Its 4-meter and 15-ton primary mirror, while working with state-of-the-art equipment, still allows for super observations.The telescope has been working since the early 1970s and has helped study the motion of distant galaxies, revealing the role of dark matter in the expansion of the universe.The Mamet Pierce Solar Telescope is the world’s largest coronagraph.His mirror is mounted in a “well” at the foot of a 30-metre-high tower and goes down a 60-metre-deep mountain.This “mine” design allows for the abandonment of secondary mirrors and eliminates the problem of blocking part of the light flux, shielding the telescope from strong winds and temperature changes.No wonder that in 60 years of work, this tool has noticed solar spectral lines boron, helium, fluoride, and water.In addition, Ketpeake has two radio telescopes, one of which is part of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) network.The network combines a dozen such instruments in the Americas, Hawaii and Germany as a single radio interferometer with an ultra-long (over 8,000 km) base and enormous resolution.The VLBA telescope also participates in the Larger Radio interferometer of the International RadioAstronomy Programme, one of which shoulders the Russian SpectrE-R satellite, which can orbit at altitudes of 350,000 km.WIYN is not the most eye-catching telescope on the mountain, but the youngest: the first light was seen in 1994.His mirror is 3.5m in diameter, but he could easily argue with the 6m tall Maier over image quality.WIYN can be called the jewel of Kitt Peak, and the jewel of the telescope itself is its unusual PZ matrix, which can radically improve image quality.There was a time when astronomers used light plastic to photograph stars and celestial bodies.The advent of the PZD matrix in astronomical observations (as shown here) has caused a real revolution, but the main problem has not fundamentally changed.In fact, astronomical objects are dark, so despite their large diameters, telescope mirrors require long exposures to take pictures.Also, they are mobile, which becomes a problem in such a shoot.The daily movements of stars in the sky can be compensated by a hydrogenation system that spins the telescope in sync with the earth’s rotation.However, some distortions cannot be compensated for in this way.All ground-based optical telescopes have the same disadvantage: our planet’s variable atmosphere unevenly and unpredictably refracts light waves from distant astronomical objects, blurring and distorting the resulting image.To solve this problem, telescopes are either taken out of the atmosphere or equipped with adaptive optics (OS) systems.Using deformable mirrors that change geometry via signals from the control system, 1000.0 allows partial compensation for distortions caused by turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere.In response, 100 billion reference stars — real or artificial — were “ignited” by laser beams at the edge of the atmosphere, at an altitude of about 90 kilometers.Even by observatory standards, the technology is expensive, sometimes costing billions of dollars.This compensation has its limitations: in particular, it is far from ideal in the grand scheme of things.So astronomers’ desire to combat image degradation with cheaper alternatives and improvements is understandable.One of the alternatives to left, right, and up and down are ORTHogonal image transfers (OTCCDs), an idea that Paul Schechter and his colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) proposed about 20 years ago.Recall that a traditional PCC matrix (CCD) consists of a series of photosensitive cells that accumulate an electric charge by recording the photons that enter them.When the exposure is complete (and only then), the charges are read consistently, one after the other.Cell by cell in each row is transmitted to a reader, which converts analog signals into digital ones.If the emitter of the range and PPP matrix moves, its image will be “blurred” over multiple cells.Restoring its original appearance is almost impossible.Cleva is a classic PCC matrix: squeaks consist of multiple shutters arranged in a linear fashion.When the shutter is read alternately (cyclic), a control voltage is applied so that the accumulated charge (electrons) moves in one direction (and only one direction), as on a conveyor belt.On the right is a variant of the orthogonal OTCCD matrix.Its pixels are already composed of four shutters from another geometry, allowing the charge to move in two vertical directions.During exposure, by contrast, the charge of an OTCCD matrix not only accumulates in its cells, but can also move to adjacent cells — left, right and up and down.This is done by commands from the control system, which uses separate independent sensors to track the position of some reference stars (e.g. 100 of 100 of 100 reference stars).Once the system notices that the landmark has moved, it extends its motion to neighboring pixels and “forces” all of their charges back.Dozens of times per second, the image “floats” and charges jump to adjacent pixels, which the control system catches and returns to place.This helps compensate for atmospheric turbulence, telescope vibrations, errors in tracking stars, and optimal resolution.The first such matrix had only 512×512 elements, but they already showed excellent results: the angular resolution of the tool was greatly improved, as was the signal-to-noise ratio.The next generation OF OTCCDs is already a suite of matrices called ORTHOgonal transmission arrays.Each has its own independent charge transfer control system and can use its own reference star to achieve very effective small jitter compensation throughout the field of view.At the same time, OTA does not exclude parallel applications and adaptive optics.The same WIYN telescope is also equipped with an O system, and its primary instrument, THE ODI (One degree Imager), consists of 30 OTA arrays of 64 matrices, 480 x 496 pixels each.Silence and Inspiration In addition to the OTA Matrix array on WIYN, there is a spectrometer and a camera for infrared observations, so it is not surprising that its observation schedule has been completed several months ahead of schedule.The astronomers he works with have a wide range of scientific interests: searching for and confirming new exoplanets, studying supernova brightening in detail, and observing dust tails of distant galaxy clusters and asteroids……But the WIYN telescope is not just a job for scientists.A number of technicians work regularly here, monitoring his condition, refueling with liquid nitrogen, and night operators help with observations: instruments are too expensive and complex to entrust to astronomers overnight.The job isn’t suitable for any job – you’ll need to stay awake all night, reposition the telescope to a new point every 20 minutes, and remove overly responsive students from the remote.But some were even happy: During one such observation, we met a photographer who was writing sci-fi books on his break.Silence and desolation, barren hills and close quarters are always inspiring.